marbling and gilded detailing. The Virgin of Chartres: Making History Through Liturgy and the Arts (Yale University Press; 2010) 612 pages; Discusses Mary's gown and other relics held by the Chartres Cathedral in a study of history making and the cult of the Virgin of Chartres in the 11th. The Virgin is depicted wearing a blue robe and sitting in a frontal pose on a throne, with the Christ Child seated on her lap raising his hand in blessing. In recent years however this view has largely been discounted, not least because each window would have cost around as much as a large mansion house to make while most of the labourers depicted would have been subsistence workers with little or no disposable income. 8 Chartres historian and expert Malcolm Miller rejected the claims of pre-Cathedral, Celtic, ceremonies and buildings on the site in a documentary. The personifications of the vita activa (directly overhead, just inside the inside of the left hand porch) are of particular interest for their meticulous depictions of the various stages in the preparation of flax an important cash-crop in the area during the Middle Ages. The central lancet beneath the rose shows the Virgin carrying the infant Christ. Whereas the lower windows in the nave arcades and the ambulatory consist of one simple lancet per bay, the clerestory windows are each made up of a pair of lancets with a plate-traceried rose window above. Chelles (S.-et-M.) : Hélio. "MilitaryTimes Hall of Valor".